The sockliner (also called insole) is the first layer of soft foam which your foot rests on inside the running shoe. ASICS has developed sockliners made of foam which offer cushioning and make sure your foot fits comfortably inside the shoe.
The tongue is a separate strip on the upper. This detail makes it easier to put your shoes on and take them off. It also prevents the laces from rubbing against the instep of your foot.
The eyelets are the holes the shoelaces pass through. The eyelets of a running shoe should be large enough and smooth enough so you can easily and quickly adjust your laces.
The heel collar (sometimes called heel cuff) forms the top of the shoe, supporting the heel and Achilles tendon. The collar prevents the foot from slipping inside the shoe and makes it more stable to run in.
The heel counter is the internal plastic structure of the shoe which wraps around the heel of your foot. It holds the heel in position during the movements of running.